Unit 731 Experiments: Unit 731 Experiments List, Unit 731 Experiments Video

Unit 731 Experiments: Unit 731 was an Imperial Japanese Army unit that conducted biological and chemical warfare research and development, including lethal human experimentation and the creation of biological weapons, during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. This article provides comprehensive information about Unit 731 experiments, including a detailed account of the experiments, and a list of the experiments conducted by Unit 731.

Unit 731 Experiments

The Maruta project was a shocking and inhumane undertaking that used human beings as test subjects. These individuals were taken from the surrounding area and referred to as “logs,” a term that originated as a joke among the staff who had been told the facility was a lumber mill. The true nature of the experiments, however, was hidden from the local authorities. According to a former junior employee of the Imperial Japanese Army, the project was internally called “Holzklotz,” which means log in German. The remains of the subjects who “sacrificed” themselves were disposed of by incineration. The researchers involved in the Unit 731 project even published some of their findings in academic journals, disguising the fact that they were conducted on human subjects by referring to them as “Manchurian monkeys” or “long-tailed monkeys.”

According to historian Sheldon H. Harris:

the Togo Unit employed brutal tactics to obtain specific body parts for their experiments. If the researchers wanted to study the human brain, for example, they would order the guards to find them a sample. A prisoner would be taken from his cell and held while another guard used an ax to bash in the victim’s head and extract the brain for examination by the pathologists. The remains were then disposed of by cremation.

Sheldon H. Harris

Professor Emeritus Nakagawa Yonezo, who once studied at Kyoto University during World War II, was a witness to some of the horrific human experiments carried out by Unit 731. He later spoke about the disturbing nature of these experiments, stating that some of them seemed to be nothing more than the result of “professional curiosity” or a desire to play.

According to Professor Nakagawa, prisoners were subjected to brutal and inhumane treatment, including being injected with diseases disguised as vaccinations, and deliberately infected with syphilis and gonorrhea. The prisoners were also repeatedly subjected to sexual assault by guards, all in the name of scientific research.

The professor questioned the moral integrity of the experimenters, asking what medical purpose could be served by performing and studying beheadings. He concluded that these acts were nothing more than a display of cruelty, carried out for the sake of playing around. The shocking reality of these experiments serves as a reminder of the atrocities committed in the name of science and the importance of holding professionals accountable for their actions.

Unit 731 Vivisection

The horrors of Unit 731 are numerous, including the widespread practice of vivisection on prisoners of war, men, women, children, and infants. These gruesome experiments were often carried out without anesthesia and often resulted in death. In a video interview, former member Okawa Fukumatsu admitted to having personally vivisected a pregnant woman.

Prisoners were infected with various diseases and then subjected to invasive surgery, including the removal of organs to study the effects of the disease on the human body. In addition, limbs were amputated to study blood loss, and in some cases, limbs were reattached to the opposite side of the victim’s body. Some prisoners had their stomachs surgically removed and their esophagus reattached to their intestines, while others had parts of their organs, such as the brain, lungs, and liver, removed.

Imperial Japanese Army Surgeon Ken Yuasa suggests that the practice of vivisection was widespread, even outside of Unit 731, with an estimated 1,000 Japanese personnel involved in the practice in mainland China. According to Yuasa, the vivisections were performed for practice rather than research and were routine among Japanese doctors stationed in China during the war.

In an anonymous interview with The New York Times, a former Japanese medical assistant spoke about his first experience dissecting a live human being who had been deliberately infected with the plague for the purpose of developing “plague bombs” for war. The assistant described how the victim screamed in agony as he was cut open from the chest to the stomach, and how this traumatic event left a lasting impression on him. These atrocities serve as a stark reminder of the horrors committed in the name of war and the importance of holding those responsible accountable for their actions.

Biological Warfare

During World War II, Japan’s Unit 731 and its related units conducted research, development, and field trials of biowarfare weapons. They deliberately spread diseases such as bubonic plague, typhoid, and paratyphoid in at least 11 Chinese cities, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths among both military and civilian populations. Prisoners were used for testing, leading to the creation of bioweapons such as the defoliation bacilli bomb and the porcelain-shelled flea bomb. These operations caused thousands of biological casualties, including among Japanese troops who were ill-prepared to handle the diseases.

Japan’s Unit 731 developed bioweapons like anthrax- and plague-carrier fleas, typhoid, cholera, and other deadly pathogens, which were then encased in bombs and dropped on Chinese cities. Food, clothing, and supplies infected with these diseases were also airdropped or distributed to victims unknowingly. The resulting outbreaks of diseases, including cholera, anthrax, and plague, were estimated to have killed about 400,000 Chinese civilians. In response to evidence of these attacks, Chiang Kai-shek sent a delegation to document the situation and treat the affected. The Allied Powers, however, did not address the issue until 1943 when Franklin D. Roosevelt publicly condemned the attacks. Unit 731 even planned to use kamikaze pilots to spread plague in San Diego, but the war ended before this could be executed.

Weapons Testing

During the Unit 731 Weapons testing, individuals were subjected to various experiments including testing of grenades placed at different distances and angles, as well as the usage of flamethrowers. Pathogen-releasing bombs, chemical weapons, and shrapnel bombs with differing amounts of fragments, as well as bayonets and knives, were also tested on victims who were restrained to stakes or other structures. Explosive bombs were also tested on human targets during the experiments.

These experiments involved strapping the prisoners, without any protection, to wooden boards that were placed at different distances around a bomb that was then detonated. The prisoners who survived the blasts underwent surgical procedures while the others were subjected to autopsy. The inhumane and unethical nature of these experiments highlights the atrocities committed during wartime.

Unit 731, Nightmare in Manchuria

Other Experiments

Unit 731, a covert biological and chemical warfare research unit of the Imperial Japanese Army, conducted numerous inhumane experiments on prisoners during World War II. Victims were deprived of food and water, hung upside down, electrocuted, burned alive, and buried alive. Dehydration experiments were conducted on victims to determine the amount of water in the body and how long they could survive with low or no water intake. Transfusion experiments with different blood types and chemical agent tests were also conducted. The unit experimented with various toxins and conducted gas experiments, including testing mustard gas, lewisite, cyanic acid gas, white phosphorus, adamsite, and phosgene gas. In some cases, experiments were described as “psychopathically sadistic, with no conceivable military application.” The unit also conducted toxic gas experiments using portable gas chambers, and field experiments with yperite gas (mustard gas) on prisoners.

Frostbite Testing

Frostbite testing was a cruel and unethical medical experiment carried out by the Japanese military during World War II at Unit 731, a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit. The experiment involved exposing prisoners to freezing temperatures to induce frostbite, and then studying the effects of the injury on the human body, often leading to extreme suffering, amputation, and death. The atrocities committed at Unit 731 were a grave violation of human rights and ethical standards, and the people responsible for these crimes should be held accountable.


Syphilis was one of the many diseases that Japan’s Unit 731 researched and experimented with. Prisoners were deliberately infected with the disease, and experiments were conducted to determine the most effective methods of transmission, such as through blood transfusions or by contaminating food and water supplies. The aim was to find ways to use syphilis as a bioweapon. The inhumane and unethical experiments conducted by Unit 731 resulted in immeasurable human suffering and countless deaths. It was not until decades later that the full extent of these atrocities came to light, and many of the perpetrators were never brought to justice.

Rape and Forced Pregnancy

Rape and forced pregnancy were horrific crimes committed by Japanese military personnel at Unit 731 during World War II. Women, including prisoners of war, were often subjected to sexual violence, and some were deliberately impregnated in order to further the unit’s twisted eugenics program. These actions were clear violations of human rights and ethical standards, and those responsible should be held accountable for their actions. It is important to remember and acknowledge the atrocities committed at Unit 731, and to strive to prevent such atrocities from happening again in the future.

Unit 731 Experiments List

The experiments conducted by Unit 731 included, but were not limited to, the following:

  1. Vivisection: Prisoners were subjected to live surgery without anesthesia in order to study the effects of various diseases and injuries on the human body.
  2. Infection: Prisoners were infected with diseases such as bubonic plague, cholera, and typhus in order to study the progression of the diseases and to test the efficacy of various treatments.
  3. Frostbite testing: Prisoners were exposed to freezing temperatures in order to study the effects of frostbite on the human body.
  4. Chemical weapons testing: Prisoners were exposed to toxic chemicals and mustard gas in order to study the effects of these substances on the human body.
  5. Biological weapons testing: Prisoners were subjected to aerial bombing simulations using biological weapons such as anthrax and bubonic plague in order to study the effectiveness of these weapons.
  6. Forced pregnancy: Women prisoners were subjected to forced pregnancy and induced abortion in order to study the effects of pregnancy on the human body.
  7. Injection of toxic substances: Prisoners were injected with various toxic substances in order to study the effects on the human body.
  8. Limb amputation: Prisoners had limbs amputated in order to study the effects of the loss of limbs on the human body.

These experiments were conducted without regard for the well-being or consent of the prisoners, and many of them resulted in severe suffering and death. The legacy of Unit 731 is a reminder of the horrific human rights abuses that can occur in the name of science and military research.

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